Dom José I
D. Jose I, dubbed "the Reformer", was King of Portugal from 1750 until his death.
He was the third son of King John V and his wife Queen Mary Anna of Austria.
The reign of D. José I is mainly marked by the policies of his Secretary of State, the Marquis of Pombal, who reorganized the laws, the economy and the Portuguese society, transforming Portugal into a modern country.
On November 1, 1755, D. José I and his family survived the destruction of the Royal Palace in the Lisbon Earthquake because they were at that time strolling in Santa Maria de Belém.
After this date, D. José I wins a phobia of stone and lime buildings, living the rest of his life in a luxurious tent complex in Alto da Ajuda, Lisbon.
From his reign stands out the event of attempted regicide that occurred on September 3, 1758 and the subsequent trial of the Tavora.
The Marquises of Távora, the Duke of Aveiro and close relatives accused of his organization were executed or placed in prison.
The whole reign is characterized by the creation of institutions, especially in the economic and educational field, in order to adapt the country to the great transformations that had taken place.
It is founded the Royal Board of Commerce, the Royal Treasury, the Royal Board of Treasury; Higher education is reformed, secondary education is created (College of Nobles, Class of Commerce) and primary school (royal masters); the army is reorganized.
In matters of foreign policy, José maintained the policy of neutrality adopted by his father.
Of note is also the severance of relations with the Holy See, which lasted 10 years.
He lies in the Bragança Pantheon, at the monastery of São Vicente de Fora in Lisbon.